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Openshift limits explained

Openshift is a Paas platform offered by Red Hat based mainly on Docker and Kubernetes. One of the concepts behind it is that Ops can set boundaries for Dev. For example by providing a list of supported technologies in the form of base images.
One other way Ops can further control the Paas cluster is to impose various limits on the components running in Openshift.

However, Openshift currently has three different ways of setting restrictions on different levels which do interconnect in an implicit way. Which sometimes can become difficult to setup in a proper way and people end up with Pods never leaving the “Pending” state. So in this blogpost we are going to take look at the different limits or restrictions available in Openshift and how they influence each other.

But to understand the restrictions better it is good to know some basic Openshift concepts and components on which these limits act. Although I highly recommend to start experimenting with restrictions and limits after you become familiar with Openshift.

Below are the components of Openshift influenced by the restrictions. (source: https://docs.openshift.com/enterprise/3.0/architecture/core_concepts/index.html)

Containers

The basic units of OpenShift applications are called containers. Linux container technologies are lightweight mechanisms for isolating running processes so that they are limited to interacting with only their designated resources. Many application instances can be running in containers on a single host without visibility into each others’ processes, files, network, and so on. Typically, each container provides a single service (often called a “micro-service”), such as a web server or a database, though containers can be used for arbitrary workloads.

The Linux kernel has been incorporating capabilities for container technologies for years. More recently the Docker project has developed a convenient management interface for Linux containers on a host. OpenShift and Kubernetes add the ability to orchestrate Docker containers across multi-host installations.

Pods

OpenShift leverages the Kubernetes concept of a pod, which is one or more containers deployed together on one host, and the smallest compute unit that can be defined, deployed, and managed.

Namespaces

A Kubernetes namespace provides a mechanism to scope resources in a cluster. In OpenShift, a project is a Kubernetes namespace with additional annotations.

Namespaces provide a unique scope for:

  • Named resources to avoid basic naming collisions.
  • Delegated management authority to trusted users.
  • The ability to limit community resource consumption.

Most objects in the system are scoped by namespace, but some are excepted and have no namespace, including nodes and users.

The Kubernetes documentation has more information on namespaces.

 

Openshift limits and restrictions

There are three different types of limits and restrictions available in Openshift.

  • Quotas
  • Limit ranges
  • Compute resources

Quotas

Quotas are boundaries configured per namespace and act as a upper limit for resources in that particular namespace. It essentially defines the capacity of the namespace. How this capacity is used is up to the user using the namespace. For example if the total capacity us used by one or one hundred pods is not dictated by the quota, except when a max number of pods is configured.

Like most things in Openshift you can configure a quota with a yaml configuration. One basic configuration for a quota looks like:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: namespace-quota
spec:
  hard:
    pods: "5" 
    requests.cpu: "500m" 
    requests.memory: 512Mi 
    limits.cpu: "2" 
    limits.memory: 2Gi 

This quota says that the namespace can have a maximum of 5 pods, and/or a max of 2 cores and 2 Gb of memory, the initial “claim” of this namespace is 500 millicores and 512 Mb of memory.

Now it is important to note that by default these limits are imposed to “NonTerminating” pods only. Meaning that for example build pods which terminate eventually are not counted in this quota.

Explicitly this can be configured by adding a scope to the yaml spec:


apiVersion: v1
kind: ResourceQuota
metadata:
  name: namespace-quota
spec:
  hard:
    pods: "5" 
    requests.cpu: "500m" 
    requests.memory: 512Mi 
    limits.cpu: "2" 
    limits.memory: 2Gi 
scopes:
- NotTerminating

There are also other scopes available, like Best effort and guaranteed.

Limit ranges

One other type of limit is the “limit range”. A limit range is also configured on a namespace, however a limit range defines limits per pod and/or container in that namespace. It essentially provides CPU and memory limits for containers and pods.

Again, configuring a limit range is also done by a yaml configuration:


apiVersion: "v1"
kind: "LimitRange"
metadata:
  name: "resource-limits" 
spec:
  limits:
    -
      type: "Pod"
      max:
        cpu: "2" 
        memory: "1Gi" 
      min:
        cpu: "200m" 
        memory: "6Mi" 
    -
      type: "Container"
      max:
        cpu: "2" 
        memory: "1Gi" 
      min:
        cpu: "100m" 
        memory: "4Mi" 
      default:
        cpu: "300m" 
        memory: "200Mi" 
      defaultRequest:
        cpu: "200m" 
        memory: "100Mi"

Here we can see both Pod and Container limits. These limits define the “range” (hence the term limit range) for each container of pod in the namespace. So in the above example each Pod in the namespace will initially claim 200 millicores and 6Mb of memory and can run with a max of 1 GB of memory and 2 cores of CPU. The actual limits the Pod or container runs with can be defined in the Pod or Container spec which we will discover below. However the limit range defines the range of these limits.

Another thing to note is the default and defaultRequest limits in the Container limit range. These are the limits applied to a container who do not specify further limits and hence get assigned the default.

Compute resources

The last of the limits is probably the easiest to understand, compute resources are defined on the Pod or the Container spec, in for example the deploymentconfig or the replication controller. And define the CPI and Memory limits for that particular pod.

Lets look at an example Yaml:

 


apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
spec:
  containers:
  - image: nginx
    name: nginx
    resources:
      requests:
        cpu: 100m 
        memory: 200Mi 
      limits:
        cpu: 200m 
        memory: 400Mi 

In the above spec the Pod will initially claim 100 millicores and 200 Mb of memory and will max out at 200 millicores and 400 Mb of memory. Note whenever a Limit range is also provided in the namespace where the above Pod runs and the compute resources limits here are within the limit range the Pod will run fine. If however the limits are above the limits in the limit range the pod will not start.

Scopes

All limits have a request and a max which define further ranges the Pod can operate on. Where the request is by all intense and purposes “guaranteed” (as long as the underlying node has the capacity). This gives the option to implicitly set different QoS tiers.

  1. BestEffort – no limits are provided whatsoever. The Pod claims whatever it needs, but is the first one to get scaled down or killed when other Pods request for resources.
  2. Burstable – The request limits are lower than the max limits. The initial limit is guaranteed, but the Pod can, if resources are available, burst to its maximum.
  3. Guaranteed – the request and max are identical, so it directly claims the max resources, even though the pod might not initially use all resources they are already claimed by the cluster, and therefore guaranteed.

Below is an overall view of the three different Openshift limits.

 

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Posted by on 2017-08-25 in Openshift

 

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Camel CDI app in Fabric8 via Maven

Recently I spent some time experimenting with the Fabric8 microservices framework. And while it is way too comprehensive to cover in a single blog post I wanted to focus on deploying an App/Microservice to a Fabric8 cluster.

For this post I am using a local fabric8 install using minikube, for more information see: http://fabric8.io/guide/getStarted/gofabric8.html

For details on to setup your fabric8 environment using minikube you can read the excellent blog post of my collegue Dirk Janssen here.

Also since I am doing quite a lot of work recently with Apache Camel using the CDI framework I the decision to deploy a Camel CDI based microservice was quickly made 🙂

So in this blog I will outline how to create a basic Camel/CDI based microservice using maven and deploy in on a kubernetes cluster using a fabric8 CD pipeline.

Generating the microservice

I used a maven archetype to quickly bootstrap the microservice. Now I used the Eclipse IDE to generate the project, but you can off course use the Maven CLI as well.

archetype-selector

Fabric8 provides lots of different archetypes and quickstarts out of the box for various types of programming languages and especially for Java various frameworks. Here I am going with the cdi-camel-jetty-archetype. This archetype generates a Camel route exposed with a Jetty endpoint wired together using CDI.

 

Building and running locally

As with any Maven based application one of the first things to do after the project is created is executing:

$ mvn clean install

However initially the result was:


~/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo$ mvn install
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building Fabric8 :: Quickstarts :: CDI :: Camel with Jetty as HTTP server 0.0.1-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:resources (default-resources) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Using 'UTF-8' encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] Copying 2 resources
[INFO]
[INFO] --- fabric8-maven-plugin:3.2.8:resource (default) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] F8: Running in Kubernetes mode
[INFO] F8: Using resource templates from /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/src/main/fabric8
2016-12-28 11:54:14 INFO  Version:30 - HV000001: Hibernate Validator 5.2.4.Final
[WARNING] F8: fmp-git: No .git/config file could be found so cannot annotate kubernetes resources with git commit SHA and branch
[WARNING] F8: fmp-git: No .git/config file could be found so cannot annotate kubernetes resources with git commit SHA and branch
[WARNING] F8: fmp-git: No .git/config file could be found so cannot annotate kubernetes resources with git commit SHA and branch
[WARNING] F8: fmp-git: No .git/config file could be found so cannot annotate kubernetes resources with git commit SHA and branch
[WARNING] F8: fmp-git: No .git/config file could be found so cannot annotate kubernetes resources with git commit SHA and branch
[WARNING] F8: fmp-git: No .git/config file could be found so cannot annotate kubernetes resources with git commit SHA and branch
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD FAILURE
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 3.612 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2016-12-28T11:54:14+01:00
[INFO] Final Memory: 37M/533M
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[ERROR] Failed to execute goal io.fabric8:fabric8-maven-plugin:3.2.8:resource (default) on project cdi-jetty-demo: Execution default of goal io.fabric8:fabric8-maven-plugin:3.2.8:resource failed: Container cdi-jetty-demo has no Docker image configured. Please check your Docker image configuration (including the generators which are supposed to run) -> [Help 1]
[ERROR]
[ERROR] To see the full stack trace of the errors, re-run Maven with the -e switch.
[ERROR] Re-run Maven using the -X switch to enable full debug logging.
[ERROR]
[ERROR] For more information about the errors and possible solutions, please read the following articles:
[ERROR] [Help 1] http://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/MAVEN/PluginExecutionException

Since the archetype did not have a template in cdi-jetty-demo/src/main/fabric8 and was still looking for it there it was throwing an error. After some looking around I managed to solve the issue by using a different version of the fabric8-maven-plugin.

Specifically:

<fabric8.maven.plugin.version>3.1.49</fabric8.maven.plugin.version>

Now running the clean install was executing successfully.


~/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo$ mvn clean install
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building Fabric8 :: Quickstarts :: CDI :: Camel with Jetty as HTTP server 0.0.1-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-clean-plugin:2.5:clean (default-clean) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Deleting /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:resources (default-resources) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Using 'UTF-8' encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] Copying 2 resources
[INFO]
[INFO] --- fabric8-maven-plugin:3.1.49:resource (default) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] F8> Running in Kubernetes mode
[INFO] F8> Running generator java-exec
[INFO] F8> Using resource templates from /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/src/main/fabric8
[WARNING] F8> No .git/config file could be found so cannot annotate kubernetes resources with git commit SHA and branch
[WARNING] F8> No .git/config file could be found so cannot annotate kubernetes resources with git commit SHA and branch
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.3:compile (default-compile) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Changes detected - recompiling the module!
[INFO] Compiling 1 source file to /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/classes
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:testResources (default-testResources) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Using 'UTF-8' encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] Copying 1 resource
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.3:testCompile (default-testCompile) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Changes detected - recompiling the module!
[INFO] Compiling 1 source file to /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/test-classes
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-surefire-plugin:2.18.1:test (default-test) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-jar-plugin:2.4:jar (default-jar) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Building jar: /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/cdi-jetty-demo.jar
[INFO]
[INFO] >>> fabric8-maven-plugin:3.1.49:build (default) > initialize @ cdi-jetty-demo >>>
[INFO]
[INFO] <<< fabric8-maven-plugin:3.1.49:build (default) < initialize @ cdi-jetty-demo <<<
[INFO]
[INFO] --- fabric8-maven-plugin:3.1.49:build (default) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] F8> Running in Kubernetes mode
[INFO] F8> Running generator java-exec
[INFO] F8> Environment variable from gofabric8 : DOCKER_HOST=tcp://192.168.42.40:2376
[INFO] F8> Environment variable from gofabric8 : DOCKER_CERT_PATH=/home/pim/.minikube/certs
[INFO] F8> Pulling from fabric8/java-alpine-openjdk8-jdk
117f30b7ae3d: Already exists
f1011be98339: Pull complete
dae2abad9134: Pull complete
d1ea5cd75444: Pull complete
cec1e2f1c0f2: Pull complete
a9ec98a3bcba: Pull complete
38bbb9125eaa: Pull complete
66f50c07037b: Pull complete
868f8ddb8412: Pull complete
[INFO] F8> Digest: sha256:572ec2fdc9ac33bb1a8a5ee96c17eae9b7797666ed038c08b5c3583f98c1277f
[INFO] F8> Status: Downloaded newer image for fabric8/java-alpine-openjdk8-jdk:1.1.11
[INFO] F8> Pulled fabric8/java-alpine-openjdk8-jdk:1.1.11 in 47 seconds
Downloading: https://repo.fusesource.com/nexus/content/groups/public/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpclient/4.3.3/httpclient-4.3.3.pom
Downloading: https://maven.repository.redhat.com/ga/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpclient/4.3.3/httpclient-4.3.3.pom
Downloading: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpclient/4.3.3/httpclient-4.3.3.pom
Downloaded: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpclient/4.3.3/httpclient-4.3.3.pom (6 KB at 30.9 KB/sec)
Downloading: https://repo.fusesource.com/nexus/content/groups/public/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpmime/4.3.3/httpmime-4.3.3.pom
Downloading: https://maven.repository.redhat.com/ga/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpmime/4.3.3/httpmime-4.3.3.pom
Downloading: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpmime/4.3.3/httpmime-4.3.3.pom
Downloaded: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpmime/4.3.3/httpmime-4.3.3.pom (5 KB at 81.7 KB/sec)
Downloading: https://repo.fusesource.com/nexus/content/groups/public/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpclient-cache/4.3.3/httpclient-cache-4.3.3.pom
Downloading: https://maven.repository.redhat.com/ga/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpclient-cache/4.3.3/httpclient-cache-4.3.3.pom
Downloading: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpclient-cache/4.3.3/httpclient-cache-4.3.3.pom
Downloaded: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/httpcomponents/httpclient-cache/4.3.3/httpclient-cache-4.3.3.pom (7 KB at 102.3 KB/sec)
Downloading: https://repo.fusesource.com/nexus/content/groups/public/org/apache/httpcomponents/fluent-hc/4.3.3/fluent-hc-4.3.3.pom
Downloading: https://maven.repository.redhat.com/ga/org/apache/httpcomponents/fluent-hc/4.3.3/fluent-hc-4.3.3.pom
Downloading: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/httpcomponents/fluent-hc/4.3.3/fluent-hc-4.3.3.pom
Downloaded: https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/org/apache/httpcomponents/fluent-hc/4.3.3/fluent-hc-4.3.3.pom (5 KB at 80.4 KB/sec)
[INFO] Copying files to /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/docker/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/snapshot-161228-115614-0167/build/maven
[INFO] Building tar: /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/docker/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/snapshot-161228-115614-0167/tmp/docker-build.tar
[INFO] F8> docker-build.tar: Created [eos/cdi-jetty-demo:snapshot-161228-115614-0167] "java-exec" in 8 seconds
[INFO] F8> [eos/cdi-jetty-demo:snapshot-161228-115614-0167] "java-exec": Built image sha256:94fad
[INFO] F8> [eos/cdi-jetty-demo:snapshot-161228-115614-0167] "java-exec": Tag with latest
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-install-plugin:2.4:install (default-install) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Installing /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/cdi-jetty-demo.jar to /home/pim/.m2/repository/nl/rubix/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/cdi-jetty-demo-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar
[INFO] Installing /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/pom.xml to /home/pim/.m2/repository/nl/rubix/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/cdi-jetty-demo-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.pom
[INFO] Installing /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/classes/META-INF/fabric8/openshift.yml to /home/pim/.m2/repository/nl/rubix/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/cdi-jetty-demo-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT-openshift.yml
[INFO] Installing /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/classes/META-INF/fabric8/openshift.json to /home/pim/.m2/repository/nl/rubix/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/cdi-jetty-demo-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT-openshift.json
[INFO] Installing /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/classes/META-INF/fabric8/kubernetes.yml to /home/pim/.m2/repository/nl/rubix/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/cdi-jetty-demo-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT-kubernetes.yml
[INFO] Installing /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/classes/META-INF/fabric8/kubernetes.json to /home/pim/.m2/repository/nl/rubix/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/cdi-jetty-demo-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT-kubernetes.json
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 01:03 min
[INFO] Finished at: 2016-12-28T11:57:15+01:00
[INFO] Final Memory: 61M/873M
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

After the project built successfully I wanted to run it in my Kubernetes cluster.

Thankfully the guys at fabric8 also took this into consideration, so by executing the maven goal fabric8:run you app will be booted into a Docker container and louched as a Pod in the Kubernetes cluster just for some local testing.


~/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo$ mvn fabric8:run
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building Fabric8 :: Quickstarts :: CDI :: Camel with Jetty as HTTP server 0.0.1-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] >>> fabric8-maven-plugin:3.1.49:run (default-cli) > install @ cdi-jetty-demo >>>
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:resources (default-resources) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Using 'UTF-8' encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] Copying 2 resources
[INFO]
[INFO] --- fabric8-maven-plugin:3.1.49:resource (default) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] F8> Running in Kubernetes mode
[INFO] F8> Running generator java-exec
[INFO] F8> Using resource templates from /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/src/main/fabric8
[WARNING] F8> No .git/config file could be found so cannot annotate kubernetes resources with git commit SHA and branch
[WARNING] F8> No .git/config file could be found so cannot annotate kubernetes resources with git commit SHA and branch
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.3:compile (default-compile) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Nothing to compile - all classes are up to date
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-resources-plugin:2.6:testResources (default-testResources) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Using 'UTF-8' encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] Copying 1 resource
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-compiler-plugin:3.3:testCompile (default-testCompile) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Nothing to compile - all classes are up to date
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-surefire-plugin:2.18.1:test (default-test) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-jar-plugin:2.4:jar (default-jar) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Building jar: /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/cdi-jetty-demo.jar
[INFO]
[INFO] >>> fabric8-maven-plugin:3.1.49:build (default) > initialize @ cdi-jetty-demo >>>
[INFO]
[INFO] <<< fabric8-maven-plugin:3.1.49:build (default) < initialize @ cdi-jetty-demo <<<
[INFO]
[INFO] --- fabric8-maven-plugin:3.1.49:build (default) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] F8> Running in Kubernetes mode
[INFO] F8> Running generator java-exec
[INFO] F8> Environment variable from gofabric8 : DOCKER_HOST=tcp://192.168.42.40:2376
[INFO] F8> Environment variable from gofabric8 : DOCKER_CERT_PATH=/home/pim/.minikube/certs
[INFO] Copying files to /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/docker/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/snapshot-161228-122841-0217/build/maven
[INFO] Building tar: /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/docker/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/snapshot-161228-122841-0217/tmp/docker-build.tar
[INFO] F8> docker-build.tar: Created [eos/cdi-jetty-demo:snapshot-161228-122841-0217] "java-exec" in 5 seconds
[INFO] F8> [eos/cdi-jetty-demo:snapshot-161228-122841-0217] "java-exec": Built image sha256:bccd3
[INFO] F8> [eos/cdi-jetty-demo:snapshot-161228-122841-0217] "java-exec": Tag with latest
[INFO]
[INFO] --- maven-install-plugin:2.4:install (default-install) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] Installing /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/cdi-jetty-demo.jar to /home/pim/.m2/repository/nl/rubix/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/cdi-jetty-demo-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar
[INFO] Installing /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/pom.xml to /home/pim/.m2/repository/nl/rubix/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/cdi-jetty-demo-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.pom
[INFO] Installing /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/classes/META-INF/fabric8/openshift.yml to /home/pim/.m2/repository/nl/rubix/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/cdi-jetty-demo-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT-openshift.yml
[INFO] Installing /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/classes/META-INF/fabric8/openshift.json to /home/pim/.m2/repository/nl/rubix/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/cdi-jetty-demo-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT-openshift.json
[INFO] Installing /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/classes/META-INF/fabric8/kubernetes.yml to /home/pim/.m2/repository/nl/rubix/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/cdi-jetty-demo-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT-kubernetes.yml
[INFO] Installing /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/classes/META-INF/fabric8/kubernetes.json to /home/pim/.m2/repository/nl/rubix/eos/cdi-jetty-demo/0.0.1-SNAPSHOT/cdi-jetty-demo-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT-kubernetes.json
[INFO]
[INFO] <<< fabric8-maven-plugin:3.1.49:run (default-cli) < install @ cdi-jetty-demo <<<
[INFO]
[INFO] --- fabric8-maven-plugin:3.1.49:run (default-cli) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] F8> Using Kubernetes at https://192.168.42.40:8443/ in namespace default with manifest /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo/target/classes/META-INF/fabric8/kubernetes.yml
[INFO] Using namespace: default
[INFO] Creating a Service from kubernetes.yml namespace default name cdi-jetty-demo
[INFO] Created Service: target/fabric8/applyJson/default/service-cdi-jetty-demo.json
[INFO] Creating a Deployment from kubernetes.yml namespace default name cdi-jetty-demo
[INFO] Created Deployment: target/fabric8/applyJson/default/deployment-cdi-jetty-demo.json
[INFO] hint> Use the command `kubectl get pods -w` to watch your pods start up
[INFO] F8> Watching pods with selector LabelSelector(matchExpressions=[], matchLabels={project=cdi-jetty-demo, provider=fabric8, group=nl.rubix.eos}, additionalProperties={}) waiting for a running pod...
[INFO] New Pod> cdi-jetty-demo-1244207563-s9xn2 status: Pending
[INFO] New Pod> cdi-jetty-demo-1244207563-s9xn2 status: Running
[INFO] New Pod> Tailing log of pod: cdi-jetty-demo-1244207563-s9xn2
[INFO] New Pod> Press Ctrl-C to scale down the app and stop tailing the log
[INFO] New Pod>
[INFO] Pod> exec java -javaagent:/opt/agent-bond/agent-bond.jar=jolokia{{host=0.0.0.0}},jmx_exporter{{9779:/opt/agent-bond/jmx_exporter_config.yml}} -cp .:/app/* org.apache.camel.cdi.Main
[INFO] Pod> I> No access restrictor found, access to any MBean is allowed
[INFO] Pod> Jolokia: Agent started with URL http://172.17.0.6:8778/jolokia/
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:52.953:INFO:ifasjipjsoejs.Server:jetty-8.y.z-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:53.001:INFO:ifasjipjsoejs.AbstractConnector:Started SelectChannelConnector@0.0.0.0:9779
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:53,142 [main           ] INFO  Version                        - WELD-000900: 2.3.3 (Final)
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:53,412 [main           ] INFO  Bootstrap                      - WELD-000101: Transactional services not available. Injection of @Inject UserTransaction not available. Transactional observers will be invoked synchronously.
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:53,605 [main           ] INFO  Event                          - WELD-000411: Observer method [BackedAnnotatedMethod] private org.apache.camel.cdi.CdiCamelExtension.processAnnotatedType(@Observes ProcessAnnotatedType<?>) receives events for all annotated types. Consider restricting events using @WithAnnotations or a generic type with bounds.
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:54,809 [main           ] INFO  DefaultTypeConverter           - Loaded 196 type converters
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:54,861 [main           ] INFO  CdiCamelExtension              - Camel CDI is starting Camel context [myJettyCamel]
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:54,863 [main           ] INFO  DefaultCamelContext            - Apache Camel 2.18.1 (CamelContext: myJettyCamel) is starting
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:54,864 [main           ] INFO  ManagedManagementStrategy      - JMX is enabled
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:55,030 [main           ] INFO  DefaultRuntimeEndpointRegistry - Runtime endpoint registry is in extended mode gathering usage statistics of all incoming and outgoing endpoints (cache limit: 1000)
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:55,081 [main           ] INFO  DefaultCamelContext            - StreamCaching is not in use. If using streams then its recommended to enable stream caching. See more details at http://camel.apache.org/stream-caching.html
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:55,120 [main           ] INFO  log                            - Logging initialized @2850ms
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:55,170 [main           ] INFO  Server                         - jetty-9.2.19.v20160908
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:55,199 [main           ] INFO  ContextHandler                 - Started o.e.j.s.ServletContextHandler@28cb9120{/,null,AVAILABLE}
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:55,206 [main           ] INFO  ServerConnector                - Started ServerConnector@2da1c45f{HTTP/1.1}{0.0.0.0:8080}
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:55,206 [main           ] INFO  Server                         - Started @2936ms
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:55,225 [main           ] INFO  DefaultCamelContext            - Route: route1 started and consuming from: jetty:http://0.0.0.0:8080/camel/hello
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:55,226 [main           ] INFO  DefaultCamelContext            - Total 1 routes, of which 1 are started.
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:55,228 [main           ] INFO  DefaultCamelContext            - Apache Camel 2.18.1 (CamelContext: myJettyCamel) started in 0.363 seconds
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:28:55,238 [main           ] INFO  Bootstrap                      - WELD-ENV-002003: Weld SE container STATIC_INSTANCE initialized
^C[INFO] F8> Stopping the app:
[INFO] F8> Scaling Deployment default/cdi-jetty-demo to replicas: 0
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:29:52,307 [Thread-12      ] INFO  MainSupport$HangupInterceptor  - Received hang up - stopping the main instance.
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:29:52,313 [Thread-12      ] INFO  CamelContextProducer           - Camel CDI is stopping Camel context [myJettyCamel]
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:29:52,313 [Thread-12      ] INFO  DefaultCamelContext            - Apache Camel 2.18.1 (CamelContext: myJettyCamel) is shutting down
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:29:52,314 [Thread-12      ] INFO  DefaultShutdownStrategy        - Starting to graceful shutdown 1 routes (timeout 300 seconds)
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:29:52,347 [ - ShutdownTask] INFO  ServerConnector                - Stopped ServerConnector@2da1c45f{HTTP/1.1}{0.0.0.0:8080}
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:29:52,350 [ - ShutdownTask] INFO  ContextHandler                 - Stopped o.e.j.s.ServletContextHandler@28cb9120{/,null,UNAVAILABLE}
[INFO] Pod> 2016-12-28 11:29:52,353 [ - ShutdownTask] INFO  DefaultShutdownStrategy        - Route: route1 shutdown complete, was consuming from: jetty:http://0.0.0.0:8080/camel/hello

There are two things to note:

thirst the App is not by default exposed outside of the Kubernetes cluster. I will explain how to do this later on in this blog after we have completely deployed the app in our cluster.

Second, the fabric8:run goal starts the container and tails the log in the foreground, whenever you close the app by hitting ctrl+c your app is undeployed in the cluster automatically. To tweak this behavior check: https://maven.fabric8.io

Deploying our microservice in the fabric8 cluster

After running and testing our microservice locally we are ready to fully deploy our microservice in our cluster. For this we also start with a Maven command, mvn fabric8:import will import the application (templates) in the Kubernetes cluster and push the sources of the microservice to the fabric8 git repository based on Gogs.


~/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo$ mvn fabric8:import
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building Fabric8 :: Quickstarts :: CDI :: Camel with Jetty as HTTP server 0.0.1-SNAPSHOT
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO]
[INFO] --- fabric8-maven-plugin:3.1.49:import (default-cli) @ cdi-jetty-demo ---
[INFO] F8> Running 1 endpoints of gogs in namespace default
[INFO] F8> Creating Namespace user-secrets-source-minikube with labels: {provider=fabric8, kind=secrets}
Please enter your username for git repo gogs: gogsadmin
Please enter your password/access token for git repo gogs: RedHat$1
[INFO] F8> Creating Secret user-secrets-source-minikube/default-gogs-git
[INFO] F8> Creating ConfigMap fabric8-git-app-secrets in namespace user-secrets-source-minikube
[INFO] F8> git username: gogsadmin password: ******** email: pim@rubix.nl
[INFO] Trusting all SSL certificates
[INFO] Initialised an empty git configuration repo at /home/pim/workspace/cdi-jetty-demo
[INFO] creating git repository client at: http://192.168.42.40:30616
[INFO] Using remoteUrl: http://192.168.42.40:30616/gogsadmin/cdi-jetty-demo.git and remote name origin
[INFO] About to git commit and push to: http://192.168.42.40:30616/gogsadmin/cdi-jetty-demo.git and remote name origin
[INFO] Using UsernamePasswordCredentialsProvider{user: gogsadmin, password length: 8}
[INFO] Creating a BuildConfig for namespace: default project: cdi-jetty-demo
[INFO] F8> You can view the project dashboard at: http://192.168.42.40:30482/workspaces/default/projects/cdi-jetty-demo
[INFO] F8> To configure a CD Pipeline go to: http://192.168.42.40:30482/workspaces/default/projects/cdi-jetty-demo/forge/command/devops-edit
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESS
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 19.643 s
[INFO] Finished at: 2016-12-28T12:30:27+01:00
[INFO] Final Memory: 26M/494M
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

After the successful execution of the import goal we need to finish the setup further in the fabric8 console.

First we need to setup a Kubernetes secret to authenticate to the Gogs Git repository.

select-secret

Next we can select a CD pipeline.

select-pipeline

After we have selected a CD pipeline suited for the lifecycle of our Microservice the Jenkinsfile will be committed in Git repository of our microservice. And after that Jenkins will be configured and the Jenkins CD pipeline will start its initial job.

build-success

If everything goes fine the entire Jenkins pipeline will finish successfully.

finished-pipeline

Now our microservice is running in the test and staging environments, which are created if they did not already exist. However like mentioned above the microservice is not yet exposed outside of the Kubernetes cluster. This is because the Kubernetes template used has the following setting in the service configuration:

type: ClusterIP

change this to and your app will be exposed outside of the Kubernetes cluster ready to be consumed by external parties:

type: NodePort

This means the microservice can be called via a browser:

app

If everything went fine the fabric8 dashboard for the app will look something like this:

app-dashboard

Like I mentioned above, the selection of the CD pipeline will add the Jenkinsfile to the Git repository, you can see it (and edit it off course if you whish) in the Gogs Git repo:

gogs-jenkins-file

Some final thoughts

Being able to quickly deploy functionality across different environments and not have to worry about runtime config, app servers, and manually hacking CD pipelines is definitely a major advantage for every app developer. For this reason the fabric8 framework in combination with Kubernetes really has some good potential. Using fabric8 locally with minikube did cause some stability issues, which I have not fully identified yet, but I’m sure this will improve with every new version coming up.

 
1 Comment

Posted by on 2016-12-28 in API Management, Geen categorie

 

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